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Strategy instruction during word study and interactive writing activities. The Reading Teacher , 61 3 , Kesler, T. Shared reading to build vocabulary and comprehension.
Peer Mentoring to Develop Psychological Literacy in First-Year and Graduating Students
The Reading Teacher , 64 4 , McCarrier, A. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Patterson, E. A closer look at interactive writing. The Reading Teacher , 61 6 , Wall, H. Interactive writing beyond the primary grades. The Reading Teacher , 62 2 , As with reading, the TCRWP advocates for long stretches of time where students are engaged in the act of writing at least four days a week for 45 minutes or longer each day. When students have time to write each day it leads to greater fluency and proficiency. This is well-supported by Hattie and Gladwell who both maintain that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time we spend in pursuit of a habit, goal or skill and our individual growth in relation to that habit, goal or skill.
In order for students to improve as writers, and build stamina, it important for them to have long stretches of time to practice. They located true or quasi experimental studies which met their criteria for analysis. All 20 studies where writing strategies were taught to both typically developing and struggling writers in Grades 2—6 resulted in a positive effect. The Teachers College Reading and Writing Project was borne out of a writing revolution that began in the s around a process approach to writing instruction, which helped educators recognize that we can teach students to progress through the authentic experience of composing that emulated that of published authors.
While our work around writing instruction has developed over the past three decades, the underlying principles around the ideas that writing is process remain constant. In our writing workshop curriculum, each unit of study provides young writers with multiple opportunities to move through the different stages of the writing process in order to take their pieces from rehearsal to publication. In our minilessons, we teach writing strategies that will help students move independently through the writing process while we teach responsively in small groups and individual conferences.
When students receive instruction designed to enhance their strategic prowess as writers i. Likewise, when students are taught specific knowledge about how to write i. The importance of supporting volume and stamina as writers is further supported in the reference materials and professional texts below. Atwell, N. Bomer, R. Positioning in a primary writing workshop: Joint action in the discursive production of writing subjects.
Research in the Teaching of English , Teaching for Literacy Engagement. Journal of Literacy Research 36 1 , Hertz, M. A kindergarten writing workshop: How kindergarten students grow as writers. Reading Horizons , 37 3 , 3. Jasmine, J. The effects of writing workshop on abilities of first grade students to become confident and independent writers.
Early Childhood Education Journal , 35 2 , Juel, Connie. Newkirk, T. Stein, M. Journal of Direct Instruction, 1 2 , Troia, G. The effects of writing workshop instruction on the performance and motivation of good and poor writers.
Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices , The TCRWP has developed a curricular calendar for content area instruction for grades which fuses supporting students in learning content with practices in literacy. We have explored how to integrate reading and writing in the content areas through our work with schools, yearlong study groups and even a weeklong institute for the past several years.
Stages of Literacy Development — The Literacy Bug
Recently, the TCRWP collaborated with the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation through a generous grant that allowed educators to work with staff developers from both organizations on-site at Colonial Williamsburg to draw on the collective knowledge base to learn and create new and innovative methods for content area instruction. There is specific research that supports the importance of literacy rich content area instruction.
While their research applied to science learning in particular, one could argue that it could be applied to any content area. Cervetti, G. Pressley, A. Billman, K.
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Perry, K. Morrehead-Reynolds Eds. Retrieved from Integrating Literacy and Science. Hapgood, S. Where literacy and science intersect. Educational Leadership , 64 4 , Freidus, H. Finding passion in teaching and learning: Embedding literacy skills in content-rich curriculum.
6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use With Your Students
The New Educator , 6, — Action in Teacher Education, 27 2 , Richardson, J. Content area reading: a year history. Fresch Ed. Jewett, P. Journal of Reading Education , 38 2 , Literacy and science: Each in the service of the other. Science , 23 , The Common Core State Standards has brought argumentation into the spotlight.
To read more about the importance of teaching argumentation to students, here are few of the sources you can consult:. Beach, R. New York: Routledge. Hillocks, G. Teaching argument for critical thinking and writing: An introduction. English Journal , 99 6 , Newell, G.
Teaching and learning argumentative reading and writing: A review of research. Reading Research Quarterly, 46 3 , The TCRWP curriculum across all areas fully embraces the research on the importance of teaching argument and places a strong emphasis on teaching students how to engage in argumentation and compose and evaluate arguments. Through the learning of this group, in addition to advanced summer institute sections and study groups, the TCRWP developed argument protocols for arguing about texts as well as ways to weave argumentation across the curriculum.
In , the TCRWP held its first annual Argumentation Institute, where hundreds of participants came together to hone their argument reading and writing skills in order to launch and sustain the work in their classrooms. As early as Kindergarten, students craft petitions, letters, and signs to tackle problems faced in their classroom, school, and even the world.
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As students move across the grades, the TCRWP writing curriculum extends their work with argument, providing students with multiple opportunities to engage in argument writing so they can develop a host of skills, which will empower them to take a stance and convince others to join their side. By the time they reach the upper grades, students ramp up their work in argument by writing research-based argument essays in which they lift the level of their work, in line with the CCSS, learning how to consider different perspectives, and crafting powerful arguments based on carefully selected evidence, analysis, and rebuttal of counter-claims.
The TCRWP has designed an argument writing curriculum that is grade-specific and positions students to progress along a path of development acquiring the essential argument skills needed, not just for college and career readiness, but to prepare students to be involved citizens who want to play a role in making the world a better place. We have also brought argument into the content areas, encouraging students to debates issues in science and to analyze informational texts, historical documents, and pictures to debate, for example, whether Columbus was a hero or villain.
In all of our argumentation work, there is a focus on debate and dialog as a way of rehearsing and developing the ability to engage in written argument. This emphasis is supported by research. There is a specific research base which holds that oral argumentation and dialog supports students being able to develop written arguments see, for example, Kuhn, ; Graff, ; Kuhn, Debating and engaging in argumentation with peers directly supports individual writing of arguments.
Please see the following sources for further consideration of dialog and debate supporting the development of written argument:. Felton, M. Graff, G. Clueless in academe: How schooling obscures the life of the mind.
How to encourage your child’s early language development
Kuhn, D. Bronxville, NY: Wessex, Inc. McCann, T. Gateways to writing logical arguments. Song, Y. Our work with schools reflects our recognition of the need to raise the level of vocabulary instruction in classrooms.