- I prossimi eventi
- Defining the middle class: Cash, credentials, or culture?
- Religion, poverty, and abundance | Palgrave Communications
- Paying the price – sara goldrick-rab Bullying and teens
With the proliferation of information and technology, more awareness is spreading among the masses. New organisations are sprouting to find a fruitful solution to these problems. The activists involved are really working hard to eradicate these problems from their very roots. So, we would like the new government to kindly come up with the solution to these problems stated below. The most widely spread endemic in India is corruption, which must be handled quickly and wisely. There is hardly any office, in both private and public sector, that is untouched from this disease.
There is no telling how much loss the economy has suffered because of this.
I prossimi eventi
Though most of us are concerned, when the time comes to act, we, the people of India, should not be found lacking. The percentage of illiteracy in India is alarming. Though The condition in villages is worse than in cities. Though a number of primary schools have been set up in rural India, the problem persists. Many people who are counted as literate can barely read or write. The education system of India is blamed every now and then for being too theoretical, but not practical and skill-based. Students study to score marks, not to gain knowledge.
This so-called modern education system was introduced by the colonial masters to create servants who could serve but not lead, and we still have the same education system.
Defining the middle class: Cash, credentials, or culture?
Rabindranath Tagore had written many articles offering suggestions to change the education system of India. But still success is as elusive as ever. Sanitation is yet another problem, but one of the biggest, in India. There are about million people who have no access to toilets at home. Slum areas do not have toilets. People are thus forced to defecate in the open, which causes numerous diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dehydration etc. Many rural schools also have no toilets, because of which parents do not send their kids, especially girls, to school. Due attention was drawn towards this problem by Gandhiji but nothing much was done.
A growing population is the biggest challenge causing these problems. For example, the sewage system in Delhi was designed to meet the needs of a population of three million people. But Delhi now has more than 14 million of population. This is not just the case of Delhi; every state and region in India is the same. Sanitation, solid waste management, and drainage continue to pose challenges in India. India is becoming a hub for medical tourism but all these facilities are not available to local residents, who happen to be poor. Healthcare is a neglected issue in India, as major attention drawers are agriculture, infrastructure and IT.
Lack of resources in rural India is a major concern of the day, leading to most of the problems. This disparity needs immediate attention of the government.
Religion, poverty, and abundance | Palgrave Communications
Pollution and environmental issues are the other challenges that India is facing at present. Though India is working hard, there is a long way to go. Degradation of land, depleting natural resources, and loss of biodiversity are the main issues of concern due to pollution. Untreated sewerage is the major cause of water pollution. The Ganga and Yamuna rivers are today two of the most polluted rivers in India. Same is the condition of other rivers that pass through populated cities.
Additionally, increasing construction and vehicular traffic also contribute to pollution in the cities. India needs to embark on a model of sustainable development. In the final analysis, any definition of the middle class will be more or less arbitrary. But it does mean identifying the middle class with sufficient precision to be able to accurately measure progress, as well as develop and assess policy. For scholars, the value of any definition depends on the question they are trying to answer.
Our new Future of the Middle Class Initiative will be settling on a working definition soon, and we would love to hear from you. In this paper, we describe the various approaches to defining the middle class, along with their pros and cons. Is middle-class status a reflection of economic resources, especially income or wealth?
Is it, rather, a state of mind, a set of aspirations, or revealed through behavior, cultural tastes, or by certain kinds of consumption? Is it a question of how we define ourselves? What is the difference between the middle class and the working class? Scholars working in different disciplines come at this definitional question from various angles. Philosophers and anthropologists tend to focus on culture, education, and power. Economists largely rely on definitions related to wealth or income. Our goal here is not to argue that any of these definitions or boundaries are right or wrong.
Simply that each will delineate a different group, leading potentially to different diagnoses of trends, challenges, and opportunities, and therefore sometimes to rather different policy solutions. Definitions of the middle class and indeed of classes generally tend to fall into one of the three broad categories, based on economic resources; on education and occupation status; or on attitudes, self-perception, and mindset.
For the first cash , we need to see your bank balance. For the third culture , we need to see inside your head.
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These definitions will of course overlap with and reinforce each other. Levels of education, for example, are highly correlated with income through earnings , and becoming more so. People doing jobs with a certain social status are likely to define themselves as middle class. Aspiring to college or having a saver mentality are likely to lead to a bigger bank balance, and so on. But it is important to be as clear as possible about which of these three broad approaches we are adopting for a particular purpose, especially when it comes to policy.
Economists tend to favor class definitions that are based on financial indicators, especially on income. This is partly for convenience, since data on income are widely available, and partly because income tends to be highly correlated with the other trappings of social class, such as economic security, education levels, and consumer preferences.
Paying the price – sara goldrick-rab Bullying and teens
We start by looking at income-based definitions, before turning to those focused on wealth, and briefly discussing other related approaches. Richard V. Reeves John C. Some authors are careful to avoid the word class when focusing solely on income. Note, too that there are many different ways of defining and measuring income. Should we look at market income, or disposable income after transfers and taxes? Should we adjust incomes for household size, and if so how? How should we treat households who report zero income? What data source is the least likely to suffer from underreporting?
And so on. For the purposes of illustrating different income-based definitions of the middle class in this paper, we use data from the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement on pre-tax household money income, adjusted for household size using square root equivalents, and expressed in dollars using the PCE deflator see more details in the Technical Note below.
Trends in median income are often used as a litmus test for middle-class progress. While the economic circumstances of the median household can be a useful indicator of overall economic health, changes in median income must be understood in the context of changes in the composition of U. In terms of looking at the middle class as whole, it is generally more useful to examine households within a certain income band around the median.
In one of the most widely cited definitions of the last five years, Pew Research Center defines the middle class as all households with incomes between two-thirds and twice the national median. Alan Krueger has popularized an income band of 50 to percent around the median. Several researchers have used Lester C.
Note that the income ranges we show here are not necessarily the same as the ones produced by these authors themselves. Our goal here is simply to show the results of applying various definitions to the same income distribution. Under a median income approach, the size of the middle class can change over time. For instance, Pew finds that the share of adults in the middle class fell from 61 percent in to 50 percent in But this might depend on where the formerly middle class households end up.
Of the 11 percent of adults who exited the Pew middle class between and , 4 percentage points fell into the lower class and 7 percentage points moved into the upper or upper-middle class. Another common indicator of middle-class welfare is the share of income going to middle-class households.
Again, some care is needed here. If the size of the middle class shrinks, then the income share will almost certainly shrink as well, without anybody necessarily being any worse off. The per-capita share of income could be declining, rising, or staying the same. Income share is a more telling indicator when the share of households in the middle class is held constant, as in definitions based on percentiles of the income distribution.
Rather than tying the definition of the middle class to median income, some scholars prefer to look at a fixed slice of the distribution. A common approach is to divide the population up into fifths by income to produce quintiles. The middle class can then be defined as some combination of these quintiles.
Note that this is nearly identical to the income range for households between 75 and percent of median income. A broader and commonly used definition of the middle class includes the middle three quintiles , encompassing 60 percent of all households. Perotti goes in the opposite direction, choosing the third and fourth quintiles.