- Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Style
- APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting
- Find a copy in the library
- MLA handbook for writers of research papers.
- MLA Format and Documentation
Other abbreviations that are perfectly acceptable to use in a bibliography in MLA format not the body of a project include:. Again, these abbreviations should only be used in the final page of a project, the MLA reference page. They should not be used in the body of a project. One of the quirkiest things about this particular style is how publisher names are structured on the final page of references.
Certain words are abbreviated and other words are written in full.
All other words related to the names of publishers should be written out in full. Certain classical and biblical works are abbreviated on the final page of references, but also in any references in the text that are in parentheses. Again, the titles above are allowed to be abbreviated both in references in parentheses in the body of a project and also on the final page of references. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers such as a scientific study or statistics , use numerals that precede measurements.
In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. When including a number in a paper, spell out the number if it can be written as one word such as six or two words such as sixty two. For fractions, decimals, or longer numbers, type them out using digits. For larger numbers, write the number itself. If the number comes before a unit of measurement or label, type the number using digits. If your teacher asks you to create an MLA outline, we recommend using roman numerals, capital and lowercase letters, and numbers.
Starting a sentence with a number is generally frowned upon. Try modifying the sentence so that the number, or number word, is found elsewhere. A total of children were found in the warehouse, some malnourished and diseased. If modifying the sentence is not possible or does not work well with the flow of the assignment or paper, type out the written number:.
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Two hundred twenty five children were found in the warehouse, some malnourished and diseased. Do not include any ISBN numbers in your paper. Photographs, data sets, tables, graphs, and other images are often added into projects or papers to promote or aid understanding. They provide meaningful visuals for the reader. If the illustration or visual image does not enhance the quality of the paper, do not include it in the project. Tables and illustrations should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to.
Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Style
For an image to be significant and easily identifiable, place it as close as possible to the text in the project where it is discussed. It is not acceptable to simply place an image in a project without including identifiable information. All images must include information about its origin.
In the text of the project or paper, place a parentheses at the end of the line where the figure is discussed, and include the label. White Studio. There is further good information here , including how to create an MLA format citation for images. This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table.
In MLA format, the first table seen in the project is labeled as Table 1. The second table in the project is Table 2, and so on. Create a title for the table and place it below the label. The numbers reflect students who are enrolled full-time. The information included above and below any images or table should be double spaced, similar to the rest of the project or paper.
Musical scores need to be labeled as well. When including a musical score in a project, do not label it as a figure or table. Instead, label musical scores with Ex. This label should be placed below the musical score. Next to the abbreviation Ex. The first musical score in the project should be labeled as Ex. The second musical score found in an assignment should be labeled as Ex. If possible, provide a caption.
APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting
The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. If the information below the sheet music includes enough information about the source, it is not necessary to include the full reference at the end of the assignment. Lists created using MLA essay format look different than a grocery list or any other type of vertical listing of items. Items in a list are formatted in horizontal order, rather than the traditional vertical style. Here is an example of how a list may look in a research project or assignment:. Notice the items are listed horizontally, not vertically.
This is important to keep in mind when including lists in a project. Place a colon between the introductory sentence and the list. There are also times when a colon is not included.
Find a copy in the library
Do not place a colon before the first list item if the list is part of the sentence. Here is an example of how a list may look in a research project or assignment when the list is part of the sentence. For more detailed information, make sure to check out EasyBib. Also, check out EasyBib. Containers are what hold the source.
Is it all necessary? Check out Section 15 above to learn how to arrange the references on the page. Our MLA formatter will help you create citations quickly and easily! Some professors or instructors will provide guidance on how to secure hard copies of projects. If your instructor does not provide you with any expectations or guidance, a simple staple in the top left corner should suffice.
MLA handbook for writers of research papers.
If a stapler is not available, some instructors allow paper or binder clips. Do not fold the top left corner down to secure the pages together. The page could easily unfold, causing a mess of papers. While binders and plastic holders are cute, in reality, they add bulk to a professor or instructor who may like to take the papers home for grading purposes. Keep the binding simple and clean. Staples work best, and binder and paper clips are the next best option.
As always, follow any instructions your professor or teacher may provide. The guidelines found here are simply recommendations. Editing and proofreading your assignment prior to submission is an incredibly important step in the research process. Editing involves checking the paper for the following items:. Your instructor may ask you to submit a hard copy, or submit it electronically via email or through a course management system. Begin the MLA header one inch from the top and left margins.
The MLA format heading and the entire paper should be double spaced. Privatization of Prisons in Texas. The privatization of governmental services has increased dramatically in the past decade as local, state, and federal agencies have searched for ways to cut costs while still meeting their mandated responsibility to provide various public services.
MLA Format and Documentation
This privatizing trend has particularly affected the criminal justice system. Since the early s, privatized correctional facilities have increased significantly, nationally and statewide. This policy has far-ranging consequences not only within the criminal justice system, but as an instructive example for government officials when considering the costs and benefits of privatization as a public policy option.
By , thirty states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had privately-operated correctional facilities Austin and Coventry 4. This movement has incited considerable debate and controversy, mainly because prison privatization calls for giving the private sector direct control over the lives of a captive human population. Surprisingly, there has been little objective and concrete analysis of the privatization of prisons in the United States.
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This is probably for two reasons: first, ideological arguments on the matter have pushed out substantive research, and second, because this trend has only recently accelerated in the U. However, case studies and statistics at the state level are more accessible. With capacity for over 30, prisoners in 43 facilities, the state of Texas has privatized more of its prison system than any state in the nation McDonald and Patten Jr. Public policy concerning the criminal justice system has become more daunting and important in the last decade.
According to the most recent U. Department of Justice survey, slightly over 2.
In comparison, in , 1. At the same time, the growth of privately operated correctional facilities has increased significantly in this country. Private prisons now hold 95, inmates in this country, which is 6. In Texas, 16, inmates 10 percent of its prison population are held in private facilities, about 10, more than the next highest state. These current statistics show that while state governments have been forced to manage and operate overcrowded and over-capacity prisons at considerable costs, many have turned to the private sector to operate prisons McDonald and Patten Jr.
According to the General Accounting Office, prison operating costs have grown steadily since , increasing almost percent since based on inflation-adjusted dollars Austin and Coventry 1.