- Unemployment in India – Short Essay 2
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- Understand 150 words essay on causes of unemployment in India
Characteristics 7. Employment Policy and Schemes 8. Growth of Employment and Others. Unemployment is a common economic malady faced by each and every country of the world, irrespective of their economic system and the level of development achieved. But the nature of unemployment prevailing in underdeveloped or developing countries sharply differs to that of developed countries of the world.
While the developed countries are facing unemployment, mostly of Keynesian involuntary and frictional types but the underdeveloped or developing countries like India are facing structural unemployment arising from high rate of growth of population and slow economic growth. Structural unemployment may be open or disguised type. But the most serious type of unemployment from which those undeveloped countries like India are suffering includes its huge underemployment or disguised unemployment in the rural sector.
Unemployment is a serious problem. It indicates a situation where the total number of job vacancies is much less than the total number of job seekers in the country. It is a kind of situation where the unemployed persons do not find any meaningful or gainful job in-spite of having willingness and capacity to work.
Thus unemployment leads to a huge wastage of manpower resources. India is one of those ill-fated underdeveloped countries which is suffering from a huge unemployment problem.
Agriculture, though a principal occupation in the rural areas of the country, is seasonal in nature. It cannot provide work to the rural population of the country throughout the year. In the absence of multiple cropping system and subsidiary occupation in the rural areas, a large number of rural population has to sit idle 5 to 7-months in a year. Seasonal Unemployment is also prevalent in some agro- based industries viz.
Unemployment in India – Short Essay 2
Indian agriculture is also suffering from disguised or perennial unemployment due to excessive pressure of population. In disguised unemployment apparently it seems that everyone is employed but in reality sufficient full time work is not available for all. In India, about 72 per cent of the working population is engaged in agriculture and allied activities.
In more than million persons were engaged in the agricultural and allied activities whereas in about million persons are found engaged in the same sector resulting in as many as 60 million surplus population who are left with virtually no work in agriculture and allied activities. In the urban areas of the country, industrial unemployment is gradually becoming acute. With the increase in the size of urban population and with the exodus of population in large number from rural to the urban industrial areas to seek employment, industrialization because of slow growth could not provide sufficient employment opportunities to the growing number of urban population.
Thus the rate of growth of employment in the industrial sector could not keep pace with the growth of urban industrial workers leading to a huge industrial unemployment in the country. Another distinct type of unemployment which is mostly common in almost all the urban areas of the country is known as educated unemployment.
This problem is very much acute among the middle class people. With rapid expansion of general education in the country the number of out-turn of educated people is increasing day by day. But due to slow growth of technical and vocational educational facilities, a huge number of manpower is unnecessarily diverted towards general education leading to a peculiar educated unemployment problem in the country.
The total number of educated unemployment increased from 5. In view of the growing problem of unemployment and under-employment prevailing in the country it is very difficult to make an estimate of the total number of unemployment in a country like India. As per the estimates of unemployment made in the Five Year Plan the backlog of unemployment which was 5. The number of unemployed as percentage of total labour force which was 2.
Bhagawati observed in its report that total number of unemployed in was Moreover, unemployment as percentage of total labour force was to the extent of As per the Employment data, the number of registered job seekers in India rose from Total number of educated job seekers has also increased from 5.
At the end of January , total number of registered job seekers in India was As on 1st April, , total number of unemployed persons in India was 7. The International Labour Organisation ILO report World Employment observed that 22 per cent of all male workers in India are underemployed or unemployed and the figure is rising. The employment in the modern sector in India grew only by 1,6 per cent per annum in s, Underemployment in the rural areas also remained high.
The magnitude to usual status unemployment chronic unemployment rose from 1. The total employment at the beginning of was estimated to be Again as per the NSS tentative estimates of unemployment for April , the usual status and daily status unemployment were 3. By adjusting these estimates, Arun Ghosh estimated the backlog of unemployment in April as—13 million of usual status and 20 million of daily status.
At the end of each Five Year Plan, the backlog of unemployment in India has been increasing as the volume of employment generated cannot match this additional number of labour included in work force. As per document of the Sixth Plan , total number of unemployed was Ninth Plan estimated the total backlog of unemployment as Thus a huge portion of our national resources has been constantly used for the generation of employment opportunities so as to clear the backlog of unemployment arising from rapidly rising population.
It is generally estimated that nearly 50 per cent of the total population of the country requires employment although in many countries like China, Thailand etc.
So, taking the employment ratio of 50 per cent, the employment requirement of India is 52 crore which is again increasing by nearly 80 lakh per annum as the population is growing by 1. As per official estimate, total employment in the country was 41 crore in and it grew by at the rate of 41 lakh annually, during the period This official employment figure is somewhat inflated as it included disguised unemployment existing in rural areas of the country.
But the level of unemployment existing at present is around 10 crore and that unemployment figure is again increasing by nearly 40 lakh per year due to our increasing size of population. In view of the centrality of the employment objective in the overall process of socio-economic development as also to ensure availability of work opportunities in sufficient numbers, a special group on targeting ten million employment per year over the Tenth Plan period was constituted by Planning Commission under the Chairmanship of Dr.
Gupta, Member, Planning Commission. Considering the need for generating employment opportunities which are gainful, the Special Group has recommended the use of Current Daily Status CDS for measuring employment, as this measure of employment is net of the varying degrees of underemployment experienced by those who are otherwise classified employed on usual status basis. The Special Group has made following estimate of employment and unemployment in India on current daily status CDS basis.
Table But unemployment rate in the country during the period to increased from 5. During the same period, the unemployment rate in rural areas of the country increased from 5. Total number of unemployed also increased from Finally, as per the data available from employment exchanges in the country, the number of job seekers registered with employment exchanges as on September, all of whom are not necessarily unemployed was of the order of 4. The number of women job seekers registered was of the order of 1. The maximum number of job seekers awaiting employment were in West Bengal The placement was maximum in Gujarat whereas the registration was maximum in U.
The placement effected by the employment exchanges at all India level during was of the order of 1. The National Sample Survey Organisation NSSO , as per one of its recent surveys made in observed that the proportionate unemployment rate in India at present stands at 2. The latest and seventh quinquennial NSSO, Survey, namely 61st round conducted during July to June constituted an important source of information on employment and unemployment.
The 6ist round of NSSO survey revealed a faster increase in employment during to as compared to 94 to It would now be better to look at the current estimates of employment and unemployment in the country made by Planning Commission.
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It captures the unemployed days of the chronically unemployed, the unemployed days of usually employed who became intermittently unemployed during the reference week and unemployed days of those classified as employed according to the criterion of current weekly status. With the increase in the population of the country, the number of labour force is increasing faster than the number of work force resulting growing number of unemployment in the country.
In , total number of labour force in India was In , total labour force of the country was However, the growth of labour force in per cent per annum increased from 2. But the growth of work force in per cent per annum increased from 2. Moreover, the unemployment rate as a proportion of labour force decreased from 9. Estimates on employment and unemployment on CDS basis [Table During to , about 47 million work opportunities were created compared to only 24 million in the period between and Employment growth accelerated from 1.
However, since the labour force grew at a faster rate of 2. The incidence of unemployment on CDS basis increased from 7. It would also be better to look at the sectoral employment shares by current daily status in the country. The decline in overall growth of employment during to was largely due to the lower absorption in agriculture. The share of agriculture in total employment dropped from 61 per cent to 57 per cent.
Essay On Unemployment In India For Students Read Here Online – Essay Avenue
This trend continued and the share of agriculture in total employment further dropped to 52 per cent in The other important sectors whose shares in employment have increased are transport, storage and communications apart from financial, insurance, real estate, business and community, social and personal services [Table A high degree of unemployment and underemployment prevails among the agricultural workers of the country. This farm or agricultural unemployment is prevailing in the form of seasonal unemployment, disguised unemployment and chronic and usual status unemployment.
To measure the extent of unemployment and underemployment is really a difficult task. As per the N. The Agricultural Labour Enquiry Committee Report First and Second revealed that in India agricultural labourers had and days of employment in and respectively. Considering the fall in the employment elasticity with reference to GDP for the agricultural sector during the s and s it can be guessed that the seasonal unemployment might have increased in recent years. In respect of disguised unemployment various estimates have been made to determine the extent of surplus labour in India by Shakuntala Mehera, J.
Bhattacharjee, Ashok Rudra, J. Uppal and others. She estimated that the extent of surplus work force in agriculture was The report submitted by this centre in September revealed that a very high degree of unemployment or under-employment prevails among the million Indians engaged in agriculture, either as cultivators or labourers. It is found that these rural people do not get even the minimum work opportunity of days a year, the average being only days. This indicates that only million people are sufficient to carry out the entire agricultural operations, including those of animal husbandry.
Thus as many as 60 million people are at present left with virtually no work in agriculture and allied activities. The study also highlighted the inter-state variation in agricultural labour absorption capacity. Among all the states, only in four states—Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala—-agriculture provides full work opportunities of days of eight-hour duration to every worker. But in states like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Tamil Nadu, employment in agriculture is available to less than 50 per cent of the workforce while Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh too have inadequate labour absorption capacity in the rural areas.
The CADR estimated that the agricultural sector will be able to absorb only million of the available million people by the end of the present century provided the rate of labour replacement by mechanization is not accelerated.
Understand 150 words essay on causes of unemployment in India
The report revealed that most of the unemployed or underemployed people are concentrated in the states of Uttar Pradesh lakh , Bihar lakh , Andhra Pradesh 80 lakh and Tamil Nadu 66 lakh. In India urban unemployment has been recording a serious proportion from the very beginning. Malenbaum, R.